“Going Bananas!”

 

flora.png

Reading about how species naturally adapt to their changing environment awoke the sleeping 12-year-old biology student in me. The student who used to look at the illustration in the books daydreaming about the meaning of life. I felt like I needed to do more research (because to be honest I think I looked at the illustrations in the biology books more than I did the reading). More research within the field of biology was therefore needed.

I started of at the biology section but was a bit “put of” by the lack of colourful plans, x-rays of frogs and cells so instead I asked the librarian for “the kids section” and told her that my 12 year old brother (that I don´t have) is very interested in Darwin and evolution and natural adaption and wondered if she had a book that easily could explain it to him. She told me I was a very nice sister to get books for my brother I said “thanks” but felt a bit guilty because of the fact that I didn´t have one. She returned with a couple of books such as Charles Darwin, Living in the world, The Complete Book Of Animals and A Book Of Wild Flowers I opened one and yes there were the pictures that I was looking for. I asked her if she had other books like “flora once” with illustrations in them. At this point she gave me a long look and asked if these too were for my twelve-year old brother. “Yes” I said with a nod- this time she gave me an even longer look before she went away and returned with three different books on flowers.

Updating my very much non-existing knowledge in the field of biology I came across a man called Darwin. Clever people might have heard of him, hahaha! Darwin (the dude) came up with a theory of evolution called ”Natural selection” where he theorised that all species on our earth are related and can be traced back to a common ancestors. According to him the birds, the bananas, the fishes are all related. Is it only in my head that a creature with a banana body, a fish tale and a pair of wings pops up?!

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“Yes?”

Well anyways, he also stressed that the most successful characteristics ofthe species and the animals that best adapted to the changing environment surrounding them were passed on through generations. Darwin’s theory was later adapted by others who stated that the evolution of the species have been more complex than that. An additional theory was also added- the  theory of mutation. According to some, natural mutation (changed cells) occurto all species. Darwin’s theory therefore becomes more complex.

 

I don´t want to bore you with all of the facts. This is not a text by a biology student- it´s written by an interaction design student reading kids books about evolution so lets move on to something we can all relate to. Food! Yes random I know but I have a point I promise. I have always lived under the motto of ”you are what you eat”. I was raised by a mother, who gave my twin sister and I raisins as a treat instead of crisps, so maybe that’s why. I therefore make sure to eat things that I know are good for my body which is plant-based wholefoods. Because I am such a food geek I do a lot of reading about food- I read articles and watch documentaries about nutrition and fitness. One day I came across an article in the guardian that stated that the pesticide sprayed on foods like bananas, broccoli and other vegetables might be a contributor to the increased number of cancer, diabetes and Alzheimer’s sufferers in our world. Reading this I freaked out- these foods especially the banana are something I eat on a daily basis. The article mentioned that it´s best to always opt for organic to lower the risk of dying young with a body full of tumours. I would love to be able to get organic food. But in reality it´s too expensive. As long as I am a student paying 9000 pounds for a degree each year without an income I am not going to afford the luxury of organic foods… Even though I believe that organic is the best to go.

 

Let´s go back to Darwin for a second… And hopefully me jumping from Darwin to Organic food will make sense to you now. My idea for this project was based on a mix of Darwin’s theory of evolution and reading about the cancerogenic spray. We live in a world where moon might shortly become the number one holiday destination, where robots will take over our jobs and where cows can be modified to look like body builders. If we can do all of this- wouldn´t we be able to protect our fruit and vegetables against insects in an organic way?

 

newton

If we look at the most successfully adapted species in the world- they protect themselves against their enemies in the most bizarre ways. The Texas horn Lizard protects itself by shooting blood from its eyes, the Spanish Ribntch shoots it ribs through it´s chest when it feels threatened and the Possum plays dead when it feels scared. What would happen if we used such defence mechanisms as seen in nature to protect our crops against insects instead of using cancerogenic pesticide.

On this note I decided to create a new species of Bananas- a banana adapted to it´s threatening environment of climate change and dangerous insects. The banana can camouflage itself like a chameleon, has a protective furry coat like the kiwi and spikes like the cacti. Who needs poisonous pesticide spray? As the Bernard of Clairvaux used to say ”Believe me, you will find more lessons in the woods than in books. Trees and stones will teach you what you cannot learn from masters.”

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The New Brief “Adaptation”

”All mankind is one author, when one man dies, one chapter is not torn out of the book, but translated into a better language.”- John Donne (1572-1632).

This was the first sentence on our new brief ”Adaptation”… When we receive a new brief there is always a sense of mystery amongst our tutors. Because interaction design students are free to use almost any medium our tutors tend to be carful when it comes to setting guidelines and this brief was not an exception.

Adaptation is a field that can be explored through any media within any field. It could be an adaptation of an object. One could for example explore new and possible uses of a stool by making it to an all in one camping device, a portable toilet, bed and cooking stove in one (maybe not very comfortable or hygienic but why not). Another adaptation could be to construct a new invention based on an already existing idea, just like scientists, artists and inventors have done through decades. It is evident that an adaptation can be applied to almost anything but what is the actual definition of the term?

The Oxford dictionary defines the concept as ”the act or process of adapting or being adapted” referring to interpretations of an already existing piece such as screen plays, films and television dramas interpreted by written words (2018).The Cambridge dictionary defines the term in a similar manner ”to change something, to suit different conditions or uses” (2018).In the Encyclopaedia Britannia the concept of adaptation has been applied to biology. A process where a space becomes more fitted to it´s changing environment, a phenomena where the most flexible space survives, also referred to as the ”survival of the fittest”. An example of this is natural features that evolve over time in order to fit a specific function. Like the giraffes necks for example which allows them to feed on green leafs high up in the treetops to survive the lack of grass on the ground (Gittleman, 2018).

natural adaptation

 

To lead us on, our tutors decided to take us on a day trip to the V&A to see the Exhibition Ocean Liners Speed and Style. The exhibition explores the evolution of the ocean liners such as ”Queen Mary, Normandy and Titanic” through out different perspectives such as ”fashion, technologic evolution, style, class hierarchy on the ship, the culture” etc. We where then paired into groups of two and asked to pick an object, concept or design and make a presentation through the lens of adaptation. Celine and I ended up together and decided to take our time walking through the exhibition before deciding on a topic.

Reading about the different pieces we found out was the main way to travel during more than 100 years. Many countries around the world founded lines and invested in luxurious ships that carried people across the world.

These are some of the facts Celine and I wrote down:

  • The ships could almost be seen as transportable cities. When they first started to be used they had highly structured class system. They also provided the passenger with everything they could do on land such as exercise, shopping, comfortable furniture, luxurious food activates etc. Later when travelling because more accessible for the common man the classes became less distinctive.

 

  • In one of the books we could read, ”Ocean liners were increasingly seen as symbols of state”. They where used as a tool to show off. This was done by design, and speed ”The desire for larger, faster and safer ships propelled the ocean liner industry”.

 

  • There was an expansion of the liners during the beginning of Second World War due to its capacity to carry big troops in high speed across the globe.

 

  • Rich people didn´t travel light and had suitcases like a small wardrobe.

 

  • The liners became symbols of the modern life of the time and inspired artists and authors. Many books where written about the life on deck such as Great Eastern by William Makepeace Thackery and a group of avant-garde artists who drew inspiration from the ships when creating an interpretation of the modern city during the 1960s.

 

The object that had caught our attention was the propeller. The propeller is referred to as a type of fan that transmits power to create a rotating motion. The adaptation of the construction and the function of a propeller can be traced back to Newton´s laws of motion and Bernoulli’s Equation of energy created in fluids.

 

newton

Newton´s laws of motion (for the people that where asleep during the physics lesson) are based on three laws. The first being the law of inertia- objects will stay in place until and external power act upon it. The second that force is the product of mass and acceleration and the last one that to every action there is an equal or opposite reaction also known as the action reaction pair. The way a propeller works (in short) is thus that pressure is created between air and water that creates a force that accelerates behind the blade to force it to move.

The fist propeller created was made by a man called Archimedes who used a screw to lift water. This was an idea that was later adapted by Davinici and (yes Alessandro and Piero) he was Italian to draw his idea for a helicopter. This idea was then adapted by Robert Hook who in 1681 developed the first watermill, an idea he later modified and designed the first propeller for ships. The first propeller ever used water force was the one used on the Turtle in 1775 (which was the worlds first submarine). Josef Ressel came up with the first idea of a screw propeller with multiple blades that became the tool used on larger ships like the once in the exhibition but that wasn´t later until the steam engine and the steel hull had been invented.

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I don´t want to bore you too much with these facts- we are studding design and not physics but focusing on the propeller made us realise that an idea and an invention is just one link in a long idea of interventions and ideas. All knowledge is borrowed knowledge adapted by someone else. If the adaptation of the propeller would continue through decades from now, what will the propeller of the future look like?

Fearing The “Crit”

 

At UAL we have the privilege to get feedback from our fellow students before the final hand in, something that we like to call a Crit. This used to scare me so much when I started. I have always been a bit of ”a teachers pet”, ”a daddy’s girl,” that annoying person in the front of the classroom who wants to do and say everything right all the time. Some might think this is a good quality, since these students tends to do really well academically. However when you study art and design different rules apply. Within the arts you are never right or wrong and your work might not be according to everyone’s taste. This makes the teachers pet student very nervous and scared just the thought of exposing an idea to someone and then listen to everything they didn´t like about the project used to make me terrified. Luckily I have since then learnt that failing is a blessing in disguise. When I fail I learn more than when I get everything right the first time. That´s why a crit is a blessing and not a punishment, it provides you with insights that you tend to miss. The thing I look for the most for during a crit when it comes to my own work and others is ”do I get the idea”. To me the idea is always the most essential part of a project. We are only students and can´t be good at everything, we can try and do our best but essential it´s rare to find an excellent coder, designer and concept developer in one (however they annoyingly seem to exist- Dan.

Luckily my fellow students got the idea this time. When we get feedback during a crit we get it in the form of post-it-notes containing pros and cons. After my presentation my pros said ”love the idea”, ”funny”, ”looks like a real commercial”. The theme of the negatives where technical like ”the sound can be improved”. Some notes also mentioned the lack of trying the product out. My tutor also mentioned that the commercial I had created with it´s funny undertone took away the attention from the product itself. His advice to me was therefor to come up with a more simple way of showing the product to the client- making the product speak for itself rather than speaking for it.

 

the on the go cinema glases

Once again the crit had lead me to new insights not only about the product itself but also how to become a better designer. The technical issues I agree with, but once again I am not a photographer, editor or a sound artist, I am a designer in learning and a concept developer. I will always strive to become better but for me the concept will always be the essence of my work.

I got really happy when people mentioned that they wanted to try the cinema out. I started this project based on a joke to create a portable unsocial cinema to wear alone that essentially no one would like to wear because let´s face it, it looks stupid. However during the filming of the commercial random people at the coffee shops and busses walked up to me asking about the product. One girl even tried it on and asked where I got it from and where she could get it. This was something I hadn´t expected. Of course my fellow students where right in order for them to understand my idea fully it would have been better for them to try it out for themselves.

I wasn´t surprised at my tutors comment on my video, I had had similar thoughts making it. After the crit I therefore decided to make a new simple video, filming the product without an American commercial voice, fast pase clips and edited gift. Just very simple starting inside the cinema, zooming out in order to let the product speak for itself rather than speaking for it.

Being a laser cut Virgin…

virgin

Do you remember that feeling before you ”did it” for the first time (dad if you are reading this I am still a virgin okay)…? That moment that would change your life forever? The first time you exposed yourself to someone that would make you a person without the ”V” word label? Like going up the hill of a roller coaster, just before the fall when you have reached that hill and there is no turning back? Yes that´s the one I had before laser cutting for the first time.

During the brake I had read the instructions on the 3D workshops website, had set up the filet to RGB colour, the stroke to 0,028 pt, the cuts to RGB red and the scores to RGB Green. I had based my construction on a paper prototype I made in scale 1:1, a pair of VR glasses with a mini cinema inside. What could go wrong, right?! I had been super organised, hade made a prototype and set up a file according to the instructions, it should be easy …Well, yes and no….

man

I got to the 3D workshop super early (maybe not a surprise for the people who knows me), but still I was early, bearing in mind that something might be wrong with my file. Showing my file to one of the technicians I realised all the mistakes I had made. So here it goes: first of all I had not taken the thickness of the wood into account when setting up my file in illustrator. Making a box in cardboard is not the same as making it in wood. Board is soft, thin and easy to shape, the importance of it being precise is therefor not as important as when you are constructing something in wood.

sketch

The second mistake I had made was not planning what side would be glued onto which. To explain the ”phenomena of gluing” to my very much non-mathematical brain the technician showed me a wooden box (yes I know, I have an IQ of a three year old child). She then showed me how the different sides overlapped each other and explained that the inner side needed to be 6 mm (3 mm wider on each side) in order to get a nicely fitted corner.

boxThe final mistake I had made was not setting the external cutting into RGB blue and the inner once to RGB red. The technician explained that the machine doesn’t understand inner and outer cutting (it basically gets confused and you need to tell it what to do, by giving it two different colour codes). In this case (because my pattern was pretty simple, it worked anyway).

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All worked out fine in the end, and guess what? I am not a laser cut virgin anymore! And like all things in life practise makes perfection (-ish)…

 

Going to the Cinema without watching a film…

the room

What do you think when you hear the word “Cinema”? Most people would probably associate the concept of cinema with watching a film on a big screen. Or maybe the first thing that comes into your mind is the “smell of popcorn, sweats and sticky drinks”? Or is it the soft chair you think about, the soft fabric with sticky stains or the heavy dark red curtains? No matter what comes into your mind, most of us have an idea of what a cinema is. But is going to the cinema just about watching film on a big screen, surrounded by popcorn smell, whilst sitting on a sticky soft seator can it be something else ?

Our brief “re-exploring cinema” aims to challenge the already known assumptions of cinema. On the brief it is stated that ”the concept of cinema can be different things such as: a place, technology, culture and an industry. We are asked to freely explore cinema using new mediums, forms and concepts with the audience, culture and location in mind”.

The first thing I did when receiving the brief was to go to the cinema, but not the way that I usually do. Instead of just watching a film I set myself the challenge to go to the cinema concentrate on the surroundings, the smell, the people, the culture and the details instead of the film. A waste of money? No, I like to think of it as useful research for my project.

at the cinema .jpg

I went to Rizi in Brixton to watch the film “Shape of Water” (well not watch the film) to watch the cinema. Going into the building the first thing that I noticed was the smell, the smell of sweet and sticky popcorn, a smell that screams cinema, a smell I would recognise from miles away. Why is it that cinema popcorn smells so much stronger than popcorns made at home?

Moving on I started looking around, the floors where covered in a red carpet, not very practical if I might say so myself since people often drop drinks, popcorn and sweets which creates grey looking stains that are hard to wash away. Baring in mind that I kind of looked like a mentally ill person where I was standing taking pictures of the carpet I moved on to the till to buy myself a ticket.

the floor

I find it interesting how the sales person always have to turn the screen round to show the available seats, instead of having a screen facing the customer. And why do we still get printed tickets in a world where “Keep-Cups” have become a new norm? I have to admit that I like it, it feels comforting that things at the cinema are the same as they where when I was a kid, that we are given a paper token with our name and seat, rather than an electronic document on a screen.

After choosing a seat I was asked “how I wanted to pay my 11 pounds”. ”Eleven pounds” I though, Has it always been that expensive!!? Reluctantly I paid by card. The cashier asked me if I wanted popcorn and I ordered a medium sized (a tub bigger than my head) without even blinking. That´s something else… I would never ever finish a tub of popcorn on my own if it wasn´t for me going to see a film at the cinema. But it´s just something about the place that makes it okay. It´s okay to sit down and eat more than half of your daily intake of calories because you are at the cinema. I then took my massive tub of popcorn and followed the bright neon signs for the screen.

the-ticket.jpg

I decided that it would be a good idea to the toilet beforehand. Oh hold on, another thing that I always do when I go to the cinema without even reflecting on it. Peed (if that´s a word) and ready I then walked to screen 3 where the film was showed.

the sign .jpg

In the cinema room I realised how hard it always is to find a seat, they always leave the light off and the numbers are tiny and hard to see. At my seat I started to look at the actual space, not much to look at considering you just paid 11 pounds for an hour. It´s dark, the floors are covered in popcorn…on the positive note they have nice curtains and the chairs are comfy.

 

 

 

Enjoying my comfortable seat I started looking at the people around me. To be fair I always do this when I go to the cinema, it´s a weird habit of mine, I always guess who is on a first date. Maybe because I myself have had a couple of them at the cinema. But why is that? Why do people go on first dates at the cinema? If you think about it, it´s quite strange, you don´t know the person, you sit next to them watching a big screen for an hour without saying a word. Or maybe that’s exactly why people go on cinema dates, because you are allowed not to say anything?

The commercial started and I noticed something else: people where laughing and commenting on the ads. Quite strange one might think considering people not often to that at home.

When the film started I continued my research, mainly focusing on the people again. A lady had a massive bag of crisp and where eating the salty treats so loudly that the guy next to her started to aggressively clear his throat. During the film a ladies phone rang (the death penalty at the cinema). Now everyone started to clear his or her throats at the same time. Embarrassed the lady where given angry looks from the whole salon and one could to tell by her facial expression that she just wanted to disappear.

 

the couple

The most interesting part of the whole cinema visit turned out to be the couple sitting in front of me. It was obvious that they where on a first date, because of their body language. The guy was abnormally polite and seemed nervous whilst the girl was nervously combing her hair with her fingers. I think most of us can relate to the feeling of going on a date, you want to get to know the person but at the same time (if you are attracted to the person) you want to touch them as well. If you think about it you could actually make a checklist of the different ”physical stages” first or second date couples go through at the cinema: first there is the leaning against the guys shoulder (check) then the romantic scene holding hands (check) and lastly the kiss (check). Some people don´t stop there but let´s not get into that- hahah! The couple in front of me made me remember all the times I have gone to the cinema with someone I really like and ended up thinking more about the checklist and the person sitting next to me than the actual film. When I think about it going to the cinema for me is more about the human connection to the one sitting next to me: the enjoyment of experiencing something with someone you like, the human touch and the conversations after the film then if I enjoyed the film or not.

I read an article on the Economic-helps website before my visit, where it was stated that cinema visits have dropped significantly since the 40´s mainly because of two things: one being it´s more expensive than it was, the other one the evolving technology, making it easier for us to get access to new films and Netflix from our home. Thinking about myself I don´t even watch TV anymore, most things I watch on my phone or my computer, simply because they are portable and easy to carry. Sadly enough I have to admit that I very rarely watch something with someone anymore, I mostly watch things on my screen alone.

The cinema is for me a social thing, not in the sense of talking but in the sense of watching something next to someone in silence. The couple in front of me was an example of how silence sometimes can speak louder than words. Just by observing their body language I knew that they liked each other and enjoyed each other’s company.

I barely noticed that the film ended because I was so focused on the couple that had just started kissing in front of me. My visit at the cinema had led me to my idea for the brief. To start a campaign or in some way highlighting the sadness of cinemas disappearance because of our modern day way of watching films. I want people to realise how ridiculous the trend of watching films alone is, how much more enjoyable it is to watch it with someone dear. A cinema visit is for me a shared experience- and something I want to highlight in order to bring cinema back.

Graphic designer or robots?

 

robot

Business insider, Experts explain the biggest obstacles to, http://www.businessinsider.com/experts-explain-the-biggest-obstacles-to-creating-human-like-robots-2016-3?IR=T (2018-02-08)

The word Politics can be defined in different ways. The Oxford Dictionary defines the word as “a debate between parties having power” (Oxford Dictionary, 2018) whilst the Collins Dictionary defines it as “an activity or action regarding the achievement of power in a country or a society” (Collins, 2018). No matter how the word is defined the key definition seems to be “ expression or fight for power”. The field of graphic design is often described as communication a tool used in order to provoke, communicate or express ideas.

A graphic designer is hired to communicate a message or identity, but how free can a graphic designer be in his or her own expression? (AIGA, 2017). Is a graphic designers role only to do what the company tells them to do they have a right and responsibility to express more? These are some of the questions that will be addressed in today’s blog post.

According to the graphic designer Jan Van Toorn a designer have a responsibility to stimulate the observers mind and should look at their task as an n opportunity to express something more than the companies message. In contrast to this Wim Crouwel argued that the craftsmanship of the designer should be more like an industrial designer that graphic design should be seen as “a matter of rational order, not of art” (Huygen, p.51).

One might argue that the designer’s impact and power over the communication is very limited in the world of today. According to the job application website Prospects.com it is crustal for a designer to listen and understand the clients needs and expectations. It is also stated that the media and style has to be according to the client’s expectations. It evident that the main task for the graphic designer is to serve the clients wants and needs, but is it true that a graphic designer doesn’t have any power over the communication, are they unable to express a personal style or opinion and can their work be seen as an expression of power (Prospects, 2018)?

According to the author of the book Helvetica the communication power of typography is often underestimated. He argues that various typefaces carry a lot of meaning and character that can change the context of a message completely. One might argue that typography can be seen as a form of power, a tool that a graphic designer can use in order to express their impact and power over the communication (NYtimes, 2011).

According to the sociologist John Berger” seeing comes before words. He argues that images are a powerful language that can be used to explain the world around us. In 1996 Van Toorn added socially committed photography in the annual report for the city of Amsterdam. Toorn did this in order to create a chock effect in order to balance out the dry data. One might argue that a graphic designer (who is free to choose imagery) for a communication can be seen as another expression of power.

To summarize believe that it is important for a graphic designer to follow the clients wants. A graphic designer is hired for the reason to communicate a message; if the rules of the client aren’t followed the graphic designer hasn’t served it´s purpose. I do however agree with Toorn, that it is important for a graphic designer to communicate something more than the client demands, to leave room for the spectators own interpretation. This can be done with the powerful tools of typography and imagery. The only question left to be answered is “is all design political”. I would like to argue that it is. Graphic designers are not robots; they are people with experiences, opinions and different cultural origin. If they are left to do their job and trusted with typography and imagery they can use their power to communicate more.

AIGA, (2017) What is graphic design https://www.aiga.org/guide-whatisgraphicdesign (2018-02-18)

Collins, (2018), Politics, https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/politics (2018-02-08)

Huygen, F (2015), The Debate in Context (2015) p.47-73

NY-Times, Colman, D, (2011), His Own mark once again, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/27/fashion/gary-hustwits-documentaries-on-design-up-close.html (2018-02-18)

Oxford Dictionaries, (2018) Politicshttps://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/politics (2018-02-08)

Prospects, (2018) Graphic Designer, https://www.prospects.ac.uk/job-profiles/graphic-designer

(2018-02-18)

 

 

“Badges and Posters might have worked in Nazi Germany, but it doesn’t work in 2018”

it´s not warmin it´s dying

WNYC, Pinterest (2018) Milton Gaserhttps://www.pinterest.com/pin/419538521524182353/ (2018-02-01)

On NASA´s website one can read that the rise of the average temperature has gone up by 0,8 C since the late 1970´s. The rise is a by-product of our overconsumption of fossil fuels and putting heat-trapping gases into the atmosphere. Whilst the sea level is increasing, the pollution and the hole in the ozone expands we are continuing our everyday life as if nothing has happened. We are aware of the issue just like Naomi Klein argues in her book this changes everything (Klein, 2015, page: 5). However organisations like It´s not warming it´s dying and books to address the issue are still being launched on the market. Is it necessary to address the issue further and what can be done within the field of graphic design in order to provoke and make a difference?

In 2014 a campaign designed by Milton Galser was introduced to the world. The campaign focused on climate change with the aim to provoke and inspire people to take action towards a sustainable future. A poster was put on the wall of the school of Visual art, a website was launched and a badge was printed. According to Milton himself the first step towards change is acknowledgment of a problem-, which he also made to the core value of his campaign. A couple of years later the website is no longer active and the Twitter account stopped being active more than three years ago (Treggiden, Deezen, 2018). What went wrong in Milton´s campaign?

One might argue that Milton Galser´s attempt to change the world with his attempt with the campaign can be seen as a Graphic deign failure. During today´s one might argue that a campaign against climate should provoke what it preaches. A campaign that wants to change people´s behaviour in terms of reducing waste and putting trapping gases into the atmosphere might be better of using recycled materials instead of printing big posters and badges of non recyclable materials.

Another attempt that has been made is the book Attack and Civic city- Our World to change! Published by Lars Muller publisher in order to address the global issue. Just like Naomi Klein argues in her book, I too believe that we are aware of the climate issue. I do however doubt that a campaign printed on unsustanable paper will change peples behavior (.

 

Graphic design is also known as communication design, an art and practise to express visual and textual content. It is evident that Graphioc design makes an impact in the society today – just look at the impact of packaging, advertisment. I believe that the execution of a campaign against climate change would have to be executed differently than the Lars Muller book and the it´s dying campaign in order for it to have a larger impact on people. A poster and badges might have worked in Nazi Germany, but I think the field needs to move on to provoke and inspire to action in the society of 2018 (United states Holocaust memorial museum, 2018).

NASA , (2018) Climate Change and Global Warming, https://climate.nasa.gov (2018-01-02)

Treggiden, K. (2014), It´s not warming, it´s dying, https://www.dezeen.com/2014/08/04/milton-glaser-its-not-warming-its-dying-climate-change-campaign/ (2018-02-01)

United states Holocaust museum (2018) Nazi Propaganda, https://www.ushmm.org (2018-02-01)

Klein, N (2015) This changes everything, London Penguin